Research Typographers

Surface research on given designers

Giambattista Bodoni

(February 16, 1740 in Saluzzo – November 29, 1813 in Parma) was an Italian engraver, publisher, printer and typographer of high repute remembered for designing a family of different typefaces called Bodoni.




Paul Rand

(born Peretz Rosenbaum, August 15, 1914 – November 26, 1996) was a well-known American graphic designer, best known for his corporate logo designs. Rand was educated at the Pratt Institute (1929-1932), the Parsons School of Design (1932-1933), and the Art Students League (1933-1934). He was one of the originators of the Swiss Style of graphic design. From 1956 to 1969, and beginning again in 1974, Rand taught design at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Rand was inducted into the New York Art Directors Club Hall of Fame in 1972. He designed many posters and corporate identities, including the logos for IBM, UPS and ABC. Rand died of cancer in 1996.


Saul Bass

(May 8, 1920 – April 25, 1996) was a Jewish-American graphic designer and filmmaker, best known for his design of motion picture title sequences.




Eric Gill

(1882-1940) was an English engraver, sculptor, typographer, and writer who lived and worked in and near London. To designers, Gill is primarily known for his popular type face designs. Eric Gill designed Gill Sans in 1927, Perpetua and the companion italic Felicity in 1925, and Joanna in 1930. The majority of his type designs were done for Monotype Typography, a company still producing type designs today.


Wim Crouwel

Willem Hendrik (Wim) Crouwel (Groningen, 1928) is a Dutch graphic designer and typographer. Between 1947 and 1949 he studied Fine Arts at Academie Minerva in Groningen, The Netherlands. In addition to that, he studied typography at what is now the Gerrit Rietveld Academie in Amsterdam.


Otl Aicher

Otl Aicher, also know as Otto Aicher was born 13th May 1922 in Ulm, Germany. He was one of the leading graphic designers of the 20th Century as well as an educator and author. He was renowned for his structural visual systems and typography.


Emil Ruder

(1914-1970) After World War II, the leading model of modern typography came from Switzerland: a phenomenon known as ‘Swiss typography’. For nearly 30 years, Emil Ruder taught typography at the Allgemeine Gewerbeschule in Basel and thus exerted a powerful influence on this development. Ruder taught a rigorous mathematical logic in graphic design to his students and in 1959 published the underlying principles of the new movement, entitled ‘The typography of order’. This new movement involved avoidance of the decorative, a strict adherence to ‘objectivity’ and impersonality, and a restriction of typefaces.


AM Cassandre

A.M. Cassandre was born in Charkov, Ukraine, in 1901 as Adolphe Jean Édouard-Marie Mouron. He used the pseudonym A.M. Cassandre as a painter, graphic designer, poster artist and stage designer from 1923. A.M. Cassandre lived in Paris from 1915 in Paris. He studied painting at the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Julian, working as a student for a while at the Hachard & Co. press.


Lance Wayman

(b. Newark, New Jersey, 1937) is an American graphic designer. He is known for such work as the logo of the 1968 Summer Olympic Games and the route map of the Washington Metro.




Paula Scher

Born October 6, 1948, in Washington, DC., is an American graphic designer, illustrator, painter and art educator in design, and the first female principal at Pentagram, which she joined in 1991. She is the 16th recipient of the School of Visual Art’s Masters Series Award and an exhibition of Scher’s work at Visual Arts Museum & SVA that ties in with her book, Make it Bigger.


Eric Spiekermann

(born May 30, 1947 in Stadthagen, Lower Saxony) is a German typographer and designer. He is a professor at the University of the Arts Bremen. Spiekermann studied art history at Berlin‘s Free University, funding himself by running a hot metal printing press in the basement of his house.Between 1972 and 1979, he worked as a freelance graphic designer in London before returning to Berlin and founding MetaDesign with two partners.


Josef Muller-Brockman

(May 9, 1914, in Rapperswil – August 30, 1996), was a Swiss graphic designer and teacher. He studied architecture, design and history of art at both the University and Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich. In 1936 he opened his Zurich studio specialising in graphic design, exhibition design and photography. From 1951 he produced concert posters for the Tonhalle in Zurich. In 1958 he became a founding editor of New Graphic Design along with R.P. Lohse, C. Vivarelli, and H. Neuburg. In 1966 he was appointed European design consultant to IBM. Müller-Brockman was author of the 1961 publications The Graphic Artist and his Design Problems, Grid Systems in Graphic Design where he advocates use of the grid for page structure, and the 1971 publications History of the Poster and A History of Visual Communication.


Jan Tschichold

Jan Tschichold was a leading German graphic designer who also exerted a strong influence on the Swiss school. The standard works he wrote on typography, “Die neue Typografie” (1928) and “Typografische Gestaltung” (1935), expound the fundamentals of modern typography. Between 1919 and 1921 Jan Tschichold studied graphic design in Leipzig at the Akademie for Grafische Künste and Buchgewerbe. Influenced by the new typography developed by the Bauhaus, Jan Tschichold started using it and developed it further. In 1925 Jan Tschichold presented his theses on the most important approaches to the new typographic design in a special issue of “typographische mitteilungen” entitled “elementare typographie”.


Lazlo Maholy Nagy

(born July 20, 1895, Bacsbarsod, Hung. — died Nov. 24, 1946, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) Hungarian painter, photographer, and art teacher. After studying law in Budapest, he went to Berlin in 1919, and in 1923 he took charge of the metal workshop of the Bauhaus as well as the Bauhausbook series of publications. As a painter and photographer he worked predominantly with light. His “photograms” were composed directly on film, and his “light modulators” (oil paintings on transparent or polished surfaces) included mobilelight effects. As an educator, he developed a widely accepted curriculum to develop students’ natural visual gifts instead of specialized skills. Fleeing Nazi Germany in 1935, he went to London and then to Chicago, where he organized and headed the New Bauhaus.


Herbert Bayer

(April 5, 1900 – September 30, 1985) was an Austrian American graphic designer, painter, photographer, sculptor, art director, environmental & interior designer, and architect, who was widely recognized as the last living member of the Bauhaus and was instrumental in the development of the Atlantic Richfield Company‘s corporate art collection until his death in 1985.


Wolfgang Weinhart

(born 1941 in the Salem Valley, Germany, near the Swiss border) is an internationally known graphic designer and typographer. His work is categorized as Swiss typography and he is credited as “the father” of New Wave or Swiss Punk typography.


John Heartfield

(19 June 1891, Berlin – 26 April 1968, East Berlin) is the anglicized name of the German photomontage artist Helmut Herzfeld. He chose to call himself Heartfield in 1916, to criticize the rabid nationalism and anti-British sentiment prevalent in Germany during World War I.



Alan Fletcher

(27 September 1931 – 21 September 2006) was a British graphic designer. In his obituary, he was described by The Daily Telegraph as “the most highly regarded graphic designer of his generation, and probably one of the most prolific”.


Mathhew Carter

(born in London in 1937)is a type designer. Matthew Carter is a type designer with fifty years’ experience of typographic technologies ranging from hand-cut punches to computer fonts. After a long association with the Linotype companies he was a co-founder in 1981 of Bitstream Inc., the digital typefoundry, where he worked for ten years. He is now a principal of Carter & Cone Type Inc., in Cambridge, Massachusetts, designers and producers of original typefaces. His type designs include ITC Galliard, Snell Roundhand, Shelley Script, Helvetica Compressed, Olympian (for newspaper text), Bell Centennial (for the US telephone directories), ITC Charter, and faces for Greek, Hebrew, Cyrillic and Devanagari. For Carter & Cone he has designed Mantinia, Sophia, Elephant, Big Caslon, Alisal and Miller.


Herb Lubalin

Herbert F. (Herb) Lubalin (.”loob’-allen”; 1918 – May 24, 1981) was a prominent American graphic designer. He collaborated with Ralph Ginzburg on three of Ginzburg’s magazines: Eros, Fact, and Avant Garde, and was responsible for the creative visual beauty of these publications. He designed a typeface, ITC Avant Garde, for the last of these; this distinctive font could be described as a post-modern interpretation of art deco, and its influence can be seen in logos created in the 1990s and 2000s.

Milton Glaser

(born June 26, 1929, in New York City) is a graphic designer, best known for the I Love New York logo,[1] his “Bob Dylan” poster, the “DC bullet” logo used by DC Comics from 1977 to 2005, and the “Brooklyn Brewery” logo.[2] He also founded New York Magazine with Clay Felker in 1968.

Paul Renner

(August 9, 1878 – April 25, 1956) was a typeface designer, most notably of Futura. He was born in Wernigerode, Germanyand died in Hödingen. He was born in Prussia and had a strict Protestant upbringing, being educated in 19th century Gymnasium. He was brought up to have a very German sense of leadership, of duty and responsibility. He was suspicious of abstract art and disliked many forms of modern culture, such as jazz, cinema, and dancing. But equally, he admired the functionalist strain in modernism. Thus, Renner can be seen as a bridge between the traditional (19th century) and the modern (20th century). He attempted to fuse the Gothic and the roman typefaces.

Alexander Rodchenko

Aleksandr Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Alexander Rodchenko) was born on December 5, 1891, in St. Petersburg, Russia. His father, named Mikhail Mikhailovich Rodchenko, was a theatre designer. His mother, named Olga Evdokimovna, was a laundress. From 1908-1910 Rodchenko was a dental technician at Dental School of Dr. Natanson. From 1910-1914 he studied art at the Kazan School of Art under Nikolai Fechin, then at the Stroganov Art Institute in Moscow. artist, sculptor, photographer and graphic designer. He was one of the founders of constructivism and Russian design; he was married to the artist Varvara Stepanova.

Frank Lincoln Wright

(born , June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture. His work includes original and innovative examples of many different building types, including offices, churches, schools, skyscrapers, hotels, and museums. Wright also designed many of the interior elements of his buildings, such as the furniture and stained glass. Wright authored 20 books and many articles, and was a popular lecturer in the United States and in Europe.

Neville Brody

(born 23 April 1957 in London) is an English graphic designer, typographer and art director.Neville Brody is an alumnus of the London College of Printing and Hornsey College of Art, and is known for his work on The Face magazine (1981–1986) and Arena magazine (1987–1990), as well as for designing record covers for artists such as Cabaret Voltaire and Depeche Mode. He created the company Research Studios in 1994 and is a founding member of Fontworks. He has been announced to be the new Head of the Communication Art & Design department at the Royal College of Art commencing in January 2011.Initially working in record cover design, Brody made his name largely through his revolutionary work as Art Director for the Face magazine. Other international magazine directions have included City Limits, Lei, Per Lui, Actuel and Arena, together with London’s The Observer newspaper and magazine.

Jonathan Barnbrook

Born 1966, Luton, UK Lives and works in London, UK Born 1966, Luton, UK
Lives and works in London, UK Since graduating in with distinction in graphic design from Saint Martin’s School of Art and the Royal College of Art in London, Jonathan Barnbrook has developed a multifaceted practice that includes activism, graphic design, typeface design, industrial design and motion graphics. Barnbrook founded his design studio, Barnbrook Design in 1990. His typefaces were originally released through Californian innovators Emigre. In 2010, his most famous typeface ‘Mason’ released by Emigre became one of the first digital acquisitions of the Museum of Modern Art, New York. Additionally his stone-carving is on permanent display of the 20th century gallery in the Victoria and Albert Museum. In 1997 he established his own fontcompany VirusFonts, releasing well-known fonts such as ‘Bastard’ and ‘Tourette’.

Why Not Associates/Gordon Young

why not associates is a british graphic design company with global reach. they are passion for design into commercial success for clients in business, government and the public sector. for nearly two decades, why not associates has been creating innovative work for clients large and small. Team works in many different media on many types of projects, including corporate identity, digital design, motion graphics and television commercial direction, editorial design, environmental design, publishing, and public art.

Jamie Reid

Jamie Reid (born1947) is a British artist and anarchist with connections to the situationist movement. His work, featuring letters cut from newspaper headlines in the style of a ransom note came close to defining the image of punk rock, particularly in the UK. His best known works include the Sex Pistols album Never Mind the Bollocks, Here’s the Sex Pistols (1977) and singles “Anarchy in the UK” (1976), “God Save The Queen” (1977), “Pretty Vacant” (1977) and “Holidays in the Sun” (1977). Reid produced a series of screen prints in 1997, the twentieth anniversary of the British punk boom. Reid has also produced artwork for the world music fusion band Afro Celt Sound System. Jamie Reid Created the ransom-note look used with the Sex Pistols Graphics While he was designing “Suburban Press” a radiacal polical magazine he ran for five years. Currently living and working in Liverpool.

Peter Saville

(born 9 October 1955) is an English art director and graphic designer. During the 1980s, he designed many record sleeves for Factory Records. Peter Saville was born in Manchester. Saville attended St Ambrose College. He studied graphic design at Manchester Polytechnic (later Manchester Metropolitan University) from 1975 to 1978. Saville entered the music scene after meeting Tony Wilson, the journalist and television presenter, whom he approached at a Patti Smith show in 1978. This resulted in Wilson’s commissioning the first Factory Records poster (FAC 1). Saville became a partner of Factory Records along with Martin Hannett, Wilson, Rob Gretton and Alan Erasmus.


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